vrijdag 24 december 2010

History in quotations - M.J. Cohen en John Major (red.)

Een tip voor een laat kerstcadeau? Dit boek benadert 5000 jaar geschiedenis, van het oude Babylon tot de oorlog in Irak in 2003, via 9000 chronologische gerangschikte quotes. De citaten zijn van hoofdrolspelers, tijdgenoten en ooggetuigen, maar ook van historici die hun visie geven over een gebeurtenis of tijdsvak. Vaak zijn dat historici van eeuwen her, zodat hun gedateerde commentaren ook iets vertellen over hun eigen periode.

Elk citaat wordt vergezeld van een gedetailleerde bronvermelding, en waar nodig enige context. De citaten nemen de vorm aan van een oneliner, een korte beschrijving, of een extract uit een contemporain historisch document.

De indeling in 90 hoofdstukken en ontelbare subrubrieken is an sich al belangrijke informatie, vooral door de preciese datering. Ik vond het daarom ontspannend om een nauwkeurige inhoudstafel te maken (het boek zelf duidt alleen de grote hoofdstukken aan) om later op terug te vallen.

De volgende jaren wil ik immers af en toe wat lezen over de grote beschavingen uit het verleden, en dat zal dan een aanleiding zijn om het bijpassende hoofdstuk in dit boek door te nemen, vooraf of achteraf.

België komt trouwens alleen ter sprake in verband met ons koloniaal verleden.

History in quotations heeft het zoals gebruikelijk over koningen en keizers, oorlog en politiek. Maar al die quotes van individuen, al die stemmen uit het verleden, geven een zekere levendigheid aan het boek die een doorsnee wereldgeschiedenis niet heeft.

Lenin is an artist who worked on humans as other artists worked on marble or metal. But human beings are harder than granite and less malleable than iron. The artist has failed. The task has proven beyond his powers. [Benito Mussolini, Opera omnia (1954)]
Zoals elk naslagwerk heeft History in quotations een magisch aura. Een selectie van duizend bladzijden citaten roept een corpus op dat een duizelingwekkend veelvoud aan bladzijden heeft. Wie heeft die allemaal gelezen? Wie heeft daar wat uit gekozen en waarom? En wie heeft die selectie netjes uitgetikt?

Acht euro heb ik ervoor betaald, tweedehands.

M.J. Cohen en John Major (red.), History in quotations
Reflecting 5000 years of world history

1008 p.
Uitgeverij Cassell Reference, 2004




Bladzijde uit het boek [klik voor groter]


Inhoudstafel:


Quotations about history // Ancient / Medieval and early modern / The 17th and 18th centuries / The 19th century / The 20th century

The Tigris and Euphrates, c.3200-c.500 bc // In the beginning / City and country / Life, death and destiny / Relationships: human and divine / Power and the powerless / Outsiders looking in

Ancient Egypt, c.3000-c.30 bc // The Egyptian world view / Pharaohs / Religion / Glimpses of individual lives / Death and burial / Egyptology, ancient and modern

The Ancient Levant, c.3000 bc-ad // The Levant before 2000 bc / The Levant, c.2000-c.1500 bc / The land of Canaan, c.1400-c.1300 bc / The end of the 2nd millennium bc / The kingdom of Israel, c.900-c.800 bc / The kingdom of Judah, c.800-c.600 bc / The classical period, 333 bc-ad 73

Ancient India, c.2500 bc-c. ad 700 // Beginnings, c.2500-c.250 bc / Wars and laws of the kings, c.1000 bc-c. ad 700 / The state and society, c.600 bc –c. ad 650 / Trade and commerce / People and families

Archaic China, c.2000 bc-ad 220 // Before the empire / The early Chinese empire, 221 bc-ad 220

Minoans and Mycenaeans, c.2000-c.1000 bc

The Americas before their conquest, c.1200 bc-ad 1550 // The Olmecs, c.1200-c.400 bc / The Mayas, c.ad 250-1000 / The Toltecs, c.1000-c.1200 / The Aztecs in Central Mexico, 1428-1521 / The Incas, c.1200-1532 / North America, c.1000-1500

Athens and her Rivals, 766-399 bc // The emergece of the city-states, c.800-7000 bc / Lawgivers / Greek tyrants / The Persian wars, c.500-c.450 bc / The age of Pericles, c.460-429 bc / The march of the 10,000, 401 bc / The death of Socrates, 399 bc / Greek men on women / Greek science / Sparta

Alexander and Greece in the 4th century bc // The struggle for supremacy in the 4th century bc / Alexander the great, 356-323 bc / Judgements

Rome: The Republic, 753-31 bc // The foundations and the monarchy, 753-510 bc / The Etruscans / Rome: the city-state, 510-390 bc / Foreign relations, 280-16 bc / Crisis in the Republic, 133-63 bc / Julius Caesar and his avengers, 63-21 bc

Rome: The Empire, 31 bc-ad 300 // Augustus establishes the empire, 31bc-ad 14 / Tiberius to Nero, 14-68 / Slavery in the early empire, 31 bc-ad 68 / The year of the four emperors / Roman Britain, 43-211 / Rome views the Celts / Emperors of the 2nd and 3rd centuries

The beginnings of Christianity, 30-604 // The first Christians, 1-300 / Conflict in the early church, 31-312 / Persecution and tolerations, 30-312 / The conversions of Constantine / Church and state from Constantine to Justinian, 306-565 / Heresies and controversies, 300-600 / Church hierarchy and the authority of Rome, 300-600 / Ascetics, missionaries and liturgy / The age of the church fathers

China: The Middle Ages and later empire, 221-1912 // The Chinese Middle Ages / The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644 / The Qing dynasty, 1644-1912

The Byzantine empire, 330-1453 // Constantinople and Christianity, c.306-527 / The age of Justinian, 527-565 / Islam and iconoclasm, c.700-900 / The court / Rules and regulations / Military matters / Court and conflict / Commerce / East and west / The last centuries, 1204-1453 / Judgements

The barbarian West, 341-751 // The first barbarian kingdoms, c.370-533 / Franks, Visigoths and Lombards, 533-751 / Conversion and Christianity / Law and societyJapan, c.450-1863// Emperor and court / Law and politics / Educaton and learning / Aesthetics

Islam, c.610-1055 // Caliphates and sultanates / Social, economic and intellectual life / Encounters with other cultures

1,000 years of muslim India, c.700-1757 // Early muslims in India, c.700-c.1200 / Early muslim rule, the Delhi sultanate, 1206-1526 / The early mughal rulers: Babur and Humayun, 1526-55 / The great mughals: Akbar, 1556-1605 / The great mughals: Jahangir, 1605-24 / The great mughals: Shahjahan, 1628-57 / The great mughals: Aurangzeb, 1658-1707 / The break-up of the mughal empire, 1719-57

Islamic Spain, 711-1498 // Religions coexist, 711-1050 / El Cid, c.1043-99 / Embattled coexistence, 1100-1500 / Judgements

Saxons and Vikings, c.410-1066 // The departure of the Romans, c.410 / The coming of the Angles and Saxons, c.449 / The coming of the Vikings, 793 / The age of Alfred the Great, 871-900 / Aethelred the Unready, 978-1016 / Edward the Confessor, 1042-66

Rus and Muscovy, 837-16 // Rus, 839-1275 / Muscovy, 1330-1633 / Judgement

The Jews, c.890-1790 // Jewish communities / Relations with other faiths / Stereotypes and accusations / Persecution / The old world and the new, 1615-1790

Popes and princes, c.800-1500 // Prologue, 4th-8th centuries / Charlemagne, king of the Franks and emperor in the west, 747-814 / Charlemagne: the legend / The rising power of the popes, 1000-c.1250 / The papacy: decline and exile, 1265-1378 / The conciliar movement and beyond, 1409-60

The medieval church, 1000-1500 // The black monks / The white monks / Universities / Lay religious movements and heretics / Pilgrimages / The rise of the friar orders / Prophecy and apocalypticism

Medieval society, 1000-1500 // Cultivating the land / The local lord and his rights and duties / Courtly culture and chivalry / Towns and their guilds / Trade and industry / Metals and mining / Literacy and the vernacular / Families / War

The Normans, 1066-1154 // 1066 and all that / William 1, 1066-87 / Domesday book from 1085 / William II, 1087-1100 / Henry I, 1100-35 / Stephen and Matilda, 1135-54 / The Normans in the Mediterranean world, 1016-1189 / The Normans: looking back

The crusades, 1096-1291 // Before the crusades / The first crusade and its aftermath, 1096-9 / The second crusade, 1147-9, and its aftermath to 1187 / The military orders / The third crusade, 1189-92 / The fourth crusade, 1202-4 / The children’s crusade, 1212 / The fifth crusade, 1214-21 / The sixth crusade, 1228-9 / The Assasins / The seventh crusade and beyond, 1248-91 / The last word

The earlier Plantagenets, 1154-1327 // Henry II, 1154-89 / Richard I, 1189-99 / John, 1199-1216 / Henry III, 1216-72 / Edward I (1272-1307) and Edward II (1307-27) / The Scottish wars of independence, 1286-1388

The Mongols, 1200-1500 // Life on the steppe / Genghis Khan, c.1162-1227 / The empire spreads and divides / Swarming like locusts over the face of the earth / Kublai Khan, 1260-94 / Timur and Samarkand, 1370-1405

The Ottomon empire, 1300-1760 // Building an empire, c.1300-1520 / Suleyman the Magnificent, 1520-66 / Suleyman’s successors, 1571-1760

The Renaissance, 1300-1600 // Humanists: looking both ways / Arts and sciences / The view from Florence / Politics and war / The spread northwards / Judgements

The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453 // The first phase: Edward III and the black prince, 1327-77 / The peasant’s revolt, 1381 / The fall of Richard II, 1389-99 / The war renewed: Henry V and Joan of Arc, 1413-53

The Black Death and later plagues // The Eastern Mediterranean / Italy in the grip / The plague moves north / Precautions and remedies / After-effects and recurrence / Judgement

Venice: maritine power, 1350-1600 // Ocean’s child / The great trading capital / War for the Mediterranean / The Venetian state / Venice as others saw her

Ducal Burgundy, 1363-1477 // Philip the Bold, 1363-1404 / John the Fearless, 1404-19 / Philip the Good, 1419-67 / Charles the Bold, 1467-77

The War of the Roses, 1455-85 // The Lancastrian inheritance / War begins: Henry VI, 1453-61 / War continues: Henry VI and Edward IV, 1461-71 / The final phase: Edward IV and Richard III, 1471-85

Portugal, Africa and the East, 1415-1583 // The invasion of the East, 1487-1515 / In search of Prester John, 1520-40 / The Portuguese and China, 1512-87 / The Portuguese and Japan, 1548-83 / Judgements

Explorers and conquistadors, 1492-1542 // The exploration of Brazil, 1500-63 / Cortés and the conquest of Mexico, 1518-27 / Magellan and the circumnavigation of the world, 1519-21 / Pizarro, Peru and gold, 1527-61 / North and West from the Caribbean, 1517-62

The rise and decline of Spain, 1492-1700 // A messianic empire / Gold, steel and faith: the bases of Spanish power / Society and government / A colossus stuffed with clouts? / Spain and its enemies / The sunset of the Golden Age, 1598-1700 / Decline: interpretations and judgements

The Tudors, 1485-1603 // Henry VII, 1485-1509 / Henry VIII, 1509-47 / Edward VI, 1547-53 / Mary I, 1553-8 / Elizabeth, 1558-1603

Reformation and Counter-Reformation 1500-1700 // Erasmus and Luther, 1503-46 / Zwingli, the Anabaptists and Calvin, 1519-64 / The Counter-Reformation, 1521-63

The scientific revolution, 1500-1700 // Ancients and moderns / Experience and experiment / Mathematization of the world picture / Matter in motion / Anatomy and physiology / The senses and the understanding / God and nature / Institutions of science / Gender and science

The French religious wars, 1562-98 // The early civil wars, 1562-72 / St Bartholomew’s eve, 1572 / Henry III, 1547-89: the last of the Valoios / Henry IV, 1589-1610, and the end of civil war, 1598

The rise of the Dutch Republic, 1567-1795 // The Dutch revolt, 1567-1609 / The Dutch Republic, 1609-1795 / The economic boom of the 17th century / Religious toleration / The Truce crisis, 1609-21 / The Anglo-Dutch wars, 1563-74 / The Dutch seaborne empire in the 17th century

Commerce and slavery in the Atlantic, 1600-1800 // Trade relations, 1604-1782 / Buccaneers and privateers / Slaves and sugar, 1518-1802 / Judgements

Trade and dominion: Europe and the East, 1600-1800 // Prelude, 1574-1599 / The East India Companies, 1600-1795 / The second age of discovery, 1688-1788

The two cardinals: Richelieu and Mazarin // Richelieu’s rise to power, 1602-24 / Richelieu in power, 1624-42 / Louis XIII, 1601-43 / The Huguenot challenge, 1625-9 / War and diplomacy, 1628-43 / Domestic issues, 1624-43 / Mazarin, 1602-61

The Stuarts and the English Revolution, 1603-25 // Charles I and the English civil wars, 1625-49 / Commonwealth and protectorate, 1649-60 / Charles II, 1660-85 / James II, 1685-9

Colonial North America, 1612-1763 // The first settlements: Virginia 1612-60 / As a city on a hill: New England, 1620-1700 / New Netherlands and Pennsylvania, 1609-1708 / Crime and punishment / Enlightenment, 1640-1740 / Social relations and divisions / Trade and agriculture / Christian revival: the great awakening / Slavery, 1662-1757 / War and conflict, 1637-1763

Russia of the early Romanovs, 1614-1796 // Founding the dynasty, 1613-82 / Peter I, 1682-1725 / The great embassy, 1697-8 / St Petersburg: window on the west / Judgements on Peter I / Catherine II, 1762-96 / Pugachev and Potemkin, 1773-91 / Judgements on Catherine II

The Thirty Years War, 1618-48 // Before the war / War in Europe, 1618 / The dismal course of the conflict / Judgements

The age of Louis XIV, 1643-1715 // Taking the reins, 1655-61 / Domestic policies / The people’s sufferings and resistance / Jansenists and Huguenots, 1673-1713 / King and court / International relations / Nine years war, 1688-97 / War of the Spanish succession, 1702-13 / Death and judgements

Frederic the Great and Prussia, 1712-86 // Father and son / The warrior king / The philosopher and the king / Judgements

The Enlightenment, 1697-1800 // Self-images of an age / Being reasonable / How to live, what to do / Nature and the universe / Natural man / Religious belief / Kinds of society / Education and learning / The possibility of improvements / Looking back

Britain: the long 18th century // William III and Mary II, 1689-1702 / Queen Anne, 1702-14 / George I, 1714-27 / George II, 1727-60 / The Jacobite rebellion, 1745 / George III, the early years, 1760-89 / Crime / Social life / Religion / Ireland, 1689-1789 / Economic conditions / George III, George IV and William IV, 1789-1837

The American Revolution, 1761-91 // Preliminaries to divorce, 1761-75 / Outbreak of war, 1775-6 / Independence proclaimed, 1776 / Struggle for mastery, 1776-9 / From war to peace, 1780-83 / Framing a constitution, 1777-93 / Conclusions

The French Revolution, 1789-95 // Signs and portents, 1762-88 / 1789: the triumph of the third estate / 1790: the dawn of liberty / 1791: constitutional moment / 1792: revolution embattled / 1793: republican justice / 1794: climax on terror / 1795 stasis / Verdicts

Napoleon and the struggle for Europe, 1796-1815 // Rising star, 1791-9 / First citizen, 1799-1804 / Emperor, 1804-14 / Nelson and the war at sea, 1797-1805 / Germany: genesis of a nation, 1806-10 / Retreat from Moscow, 1812 / Imperial collapse, imperial revival, 1813-15 / Waterloo, 18 june 1815 / Verdicts

Revolution and Counter-Religion in Europe, 1815-48 // Action and reaction on the continent, 1815-21 / Austria: the Metternich system, 1815-32 / France: Restoration, 1815-1830 / France: July Revolution, 1830 / Spain: end of empire, 1814-30 / Greece: a second Hellas? 1821-4 / Italy: divergent roads to freedom, 1820-47 / The papacy: church intransigent, 1814-46 / Germany: romantic revolt, 1817-47 / Russia: imperial gendarme, 1822-47 / France: bourgeois monarchy, 1830-48

The 1848 revolutions // ‘The springtime of the peoples’ / France: upsurge and recoil, january-september 1848 / Austria: the fall of Metternich, march-june 1848 / Hungary: the Magyar challenge / The Slav predicament / Italy: divide and rule / Germany: the abortive Reich / Russia: damage control / Aftermath

The birth of industrial society in Britain 1776-1851 // New order, 1776-1848 / Market forces, 1770-1807 / Science on the margin, 1775-1842 / Country and city, 1798-1846 / Canals, roads, railways, 1768-1835 / Industry, 1765-1848 / The great exhibition of 1851

Democracy in America, 1791-1861 // Liberty and union, 1795-1860 / The West, 1805-61 / Native Americans, 1803-64 / Immigrants, 1783-1859 / Slavery and the South, 1784-1861 / Slavery and the North, 1837-59

The American Civil War, 1861-5 // 1861: schism / 1862: emancipation / 1863: attrition / 1864: endgame / 1865: reunion / Retrospect

Reform in Britain, 1776-1865 // Green shoots, 1776-83 / Blight, 1791-1801 / Swells of discontent, 1812-30 / Reform enacted, 1830-32 / The end of slavery, 1772-1833 / Bourgeois monarchy, 1834-48 / The Irish question, 1780-1848 / Stalemate, 1850-65

American and the world, 1783-1914 // Eagle ascending, 1816-1910 / South of the border, 1786-1914 / Across the pacific, 1783-1912 / The old world, 1789-1909

Anti-semitism and zionism, 1835-1914 // Russia, 1835-1913 / Germany and Austria, 1848-1906 / France, 1869-1904 / Britain, 1884-1913 / Zionism, 1860-1914

Democracy in America, 1865-1917 // The West, 1866-93 / Huddled masses, 1869-1916 / The legacy of slavery, 1865-1916 / Gilded age politics, 1865-83 / Revolt of the masses, 1885-1900 / Progressive era, 1901-17

Democracy in Britain, 1865-1914 // Liberal democracy, 1866-1911 / Tory democracy, 1867-1909 / Social democracy, 1867-1912 / Votes for women, 1866-1914 / Ireland

Right and left in Europe, 1850-1914 // Marx and Engels, 1850-83 / Religion and irreligion, 1850-1904 / France: a second Napoleon, 1851-70 / France: Paris commune, 1871 / France: third republic, 1871-1914 / Germany and Bismarck, 1852-90 / Germany: Wilhelmine empire, 1890-1914 / Russia, tsar liberator, 1855-81 / Russia, path to revolution, 1881-1905 / Lenin and bolshevism, 1901-1904

Imperialism, 1830-1914 // Devotees and rejectionists / The Far East and Central Asia, 1840-1905 / The Arab world, 1833-1908 / India / Africa South of the Sahara, 1840-1909

War and peace, 1853-1914 // Mise en scène / The containment of Russia: the Crimea and the Balkans, 1853-78 / Wars for nationhood, 1860-71 / The shape of battle, 1862-1913 / Hawks, 1877-1914 / Doves, 1863-1907 / Seeds of war, 1877-1908 / Road to catastrophe, 1908-14 / Judgement and prophecy

World War I, 1914-18 // 1914: first blood / 1915: stalemate and sideshow / 1916: attrition / Songs of war / 1917: in the balance / 1918: fight to the finish / Summation / Epitaphs

The Russian Revolution, 1914-24 // Tsarism in extremis, 1914-17 / Provisional government, march-november 1917 / The bolshevik coup, november 1917 / Russia leaves the war, march 1918 / Dictatorship of the proletariat, 1918-20 / War communism, 1918-20 / Terror, 1917-20 / Civil War, 1918-21 / Lenin’s final years, 1921-4 / Lenin’s achievement

Stalinism and maoism, 1924-40 // Collectivization, 1927-36 / Industrialization, 1927-35 / The purge, 1934-40 / Western approaches / Chinese revolution, 1922-40

Fascism and national socialism, 1919-39 // Fascism in Italy, 1919-39 / Nazism in Germany: advent, 1919-23 / Nazism in Germany, fringe party, 1922-31 / Nazism in Germany, seizure of power, 1932-3 / Nazism in Germany: the night of the long knives, 1934 / Nazism in Germany: the new order, 1934-6 / Nazism in Germany: racism / Nazism in Germany: the churches / Nazism in Germany: the führer state, 1936-9

America: boom and bust, 1919-39 // The roaring twenties / Red scare, 1919-27 / Prohibition, 1919-30 / Forward to the past, 1922-8 / Business adminitration, 1920-32 / Collapse, 1929-32 / Roosevelt and the promise of a new deal, 1932-3 / New Deal in action, 1933-4 / New Deal embattled, 1935-6 / Diminuendo, 1937-9 / Judgements

Britain between the wars, 1918-39 // Strife, 1918-25 / Liberalism marginalized, 1919-29 / Going into labour, 1924 / Baldwin and conservatism, 1919-31 / General strike, 1926 / Labour’s second coming, 1929-31 / National conservatism, 1931-9 / Mosley and fascism, 1927-36 / Very British communism, 1925-39

Imperialism and nationalism, 1914-45 // The Arab world and Britain / The Arab world and France / Africa / India / Southeast Asia / China and Japan / The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe / Ireland / Latin America

The post-war settlement and after, 1918-29 // Redrawing the map of Europe: the Paris peace conference, 1919 / The treaty of Versailles, 1919 / New nations in Central and Eastern Europe, 1919-23 / Dismantling the Ottoman Empire, 1919-27 / The league of nations: champions and critics, 1916-29 / Internationalists and pragmatists: international relations, 1921-9

The road to war, 1929-39 // New weapons, new tactics / Lebensraum and the Drang nach Osten: the seeds of Nazi expansionism, 1924-33 / The slump and the breakdown of international diplomacy, 1929-32 / Facing the dictators, 1933-6 / Italy in Abyssinia, 1935-6 / The Berlin-Rome axis and the anti-comintern pact, 1936 / ‘Total and ruthless war’: the Spanish Civil War, 1936-9 / America isolated, 1933-7 / Appeasment: from the Anschluss to the Munich agreement, 1938 / Poland and the Nazi-Soviet pact, 1939 / Judgement

Crimes against humanity, 1939-45 // Categories / Euthanasia / Gypsies / Homosexuals / Jehovah’s witnesses / Poles / Prisoners-of-war: Soviet Union / Prisoners-of-war: Nazi Germany / Prisoners-of-war: Japan / Prisoners-of-war: United States / The holocaust: prelude to genocide, 1925-40 / The holocaust: war of annihilation, 1941 / The holocaust the final solution, 1942 / The holocaust: inferno, 1943 / The holocaust: war lost, war won, 1944-5 / The holocaust: victims / The holocaust: on the outside looking in

World War II, 1939-45 // Phoney war, 1939-40 / The Battle of Britain, 1940 / The Blitz, 1940-41 / France under occupation, 1940-4 / The battle of the Atlantic, 1941-3 / Strategic air offensive, 1942-5 / The Mediterranean: North Africa and Italy, 1940-44 / Soviet Russia, 1941-5 / Liberation in Western Europe, 1944-5 / The Pacific, China and Burma, 1941-5 / The atomic bomb, 1939-45 / Home front USA, 1941-5 / Home front Britain, 1939-45 / Hopes for the future, 1941-5

End of empires, 1945-94 // Recessional, 1945-64 / India, 1944-7 / France and Vietnam, 1945-7 / Indonesia, 1945-9 / Malaya, 1948-52 / China, 1948-9 / The Middle East: Egypt, Palestine, Iran and Cyprus, 1946-55 / Suez, 1956 / Panama, 1953-79 / East of Suez, 1967-8 / Algeria, 1945-62 / West Africa, 1946-60 / East Africa, 1949-52 / The Belgian Congo, 1959-60 / Central Africa, 1960-64 / South Africa, 1954-94

The Cold War, 1945-1989 // Opening moves, 1945-6 / Icing up, 1947-9 / Germany rearmed, 1949-54 / The Far East, 1945-54 / Peaceful coexistence, 1953-64 / Berlin, 1958-63 / The bomb, 1946-1963 / Closed hemisphere: Latin America, 1947-87 / Vietnam / Détente and dénouement

The communist world, 1945-2001 // Soviet Union: the last years of Stalinn, 1945-1953 / Soviet Union: the Krushchev era, 1953-64 / Soviet Union: the Brezhnev years, 1964-82 / Soviet Union: Gorbachev, 1984-91 / Eastern Union, 1945-89 / China, Mao in power, 1949-76 / China and the Soviet Union: the Sino-Soviet dispute, 1949-69 / China: de-maoization, 1976-89 / Yugoslavia: from communism to blood feud, 1989-2001

The United States since 1945 // Hail to the chiefs! / National insecurity, 1947-57 / Black America, 1948-93 / Women’s liberation, 1960-92 / Dallas, 22 november 1963 / Watergate / Beyond the New Deal: one step forward, two steps back

Britain since 1945 // Labour revolution, 1945-51 / Conservatism paramount, 1951-64 / Labour returned, 1964-70 / The heath government, 1970-74 / The last of old labour, 1974-9 / The Thatcher earthquake, 1979-90 / Plus ça change, 1990-2002 / Britain and Europe, 1946-92 / Northern Ireland, 1969-98

Middle East vortex, 1948-2003 // Cold war arena, 1957-70 / The oil shock, 1973 / To Camp David, 1977-9 / Israel in Lebanon, 1982: another black September / Via Dolorosa: a road to peace! / Revolution in Iran / Iraq and Kuwait / Al-Qaeda, 9/11 and operation Iraqi Freedom

Globalization // Globalization: the way we live now / Global village: the virtual community / Money makes the world go round / Borderless business / The big lenders / Free-trade winds / Earth in the balance / Workers of the world / Nations and multinationals / Global governance / Future indefinite

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